The Places (Search) API maintains a large selection of categories that can be used to describe and group places. The categories that are available do actually change over time and location, i.e. not all categories are applicable at all places and categories will be added and removed in the future.
The Places (Search) API provides an entrypoint that can be queried to obtain a list of place categories that are currently used in a given location Place Categories Entrypoint.
Therefore only a subset of the categories can be used as filters (for example with the Explore Entrypoint). These filter categories are "fixed" and will not be removed in future releases. At the moment, the subset is:
Additional to place categories, Places (Search) API also supports cuisine categories. A list cuisine categories can be obtain from the entrypoint Cuisine Categories Entrypoint. This type of category filter can only be applied in Explore Entrypoint and Tiles Entrypoint